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PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN ILMU KOMPUTER
FAKULTAS PENDIDIKAN MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
UNIVERSITAS PENDIDIKAN INDONESIA
First, The writer say thanks to Allah SWT which has given its Rahmat so we can finish this Working Paper, which the title is “E-Learning”. This is compiled for passing the English Task.
While compiling this handing out, we found many problems, but Alhamdulillah, they was finally cleared.
Then, we say thanks to friends in his team which has cooperated to finalize this Working Paper. We realize that this Working Paper has not perfection yet . We hope the criticisms and suggestions from the readers for repairing in the future.
Many of the most universities in the country are realizing that no everyone can attend regular classes to obtain a college education. As a result almost all of them offer distance learning programs that allow students from anywhere in the country to get a university education and evenget an online degree. There are many barriers to overcome in order to get a college education. They range from cost to motivation to accessibility. Many young people and their families simply cannot afford to pay the tens of thousands of dollars that is necessary in a regular degree program. Others live in remote areas of the country that make it impossible to attend college without major support and subsidies.
Distance learning allows them to overcome many of these challenges by connecting to the school of their choice through the Internet and enrolling in online degree granting programs in their field of choice. They can get a college education and still help out on the farm at home or they can work to support themselves during the day and take online classes at night. These types of programs have transformed the higher education landscape almost overnight. Many millions of American kids will follow their college dreams right after high school, but they are now being joined in the academic world by military veterans, housewives, and thousands of other people who want a second chance at living out their dream.
Distance learning has democratized the higher education system in this country and it doesn’t matter now how much money your family has or what stage of life you choose to continue your education. An online degree from a reputable and accredited program is worth just as much as if you went to that school for four years right after high school.
If you could picture an online classroom you would see a wide range of ages and life experiences sitting at their home computer, engaged in the pursuit of an online degree. Their enthusiasm to learn is just as great as those who sit in a regular classroom or lecture hall at the university. But what may strike you the most is that these people who are studying for an online degree have a zeal for learning and a motivation to get ahead that any university professor would love to see in his much younger class. These people desperately want to get their college education and distance learning will help them get there.
DEFINITION OF E-LEARNING
E-learning is a general term used to refer to computer-enhanced learning. E-learning is the use of electronic information (the ‘e’ in e-learning) and communications technology to deliver learning products to expand knowledge and improve performance. E-learning is suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but can also be used in conjuntion with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term blended learning is commonly used.
E-learning is a very broad term. It is used to describe any type of learning environment that is computer enhanced. There are multiple technologies that can be employed in E-learning. It has become one of those types of words that are so general as to have lost some of its meaning. Distance learning is something that has evolved from Elearning. It is used to describe a learning environment that takes place away from the actual traditional classroom and campus.
HISTORY OF E-LEARNING
The history of e-learning starts with an understanding of how instructional design, instructional technology, and educational technology evolved in the last century.
Pre 1920s: Shift from phrenology (stuffing the mind with knowledge as a mental exercise) to an empirical knowledge base for education based on Thorndike’s Laws of Learning and the introduction of educational measurement.
1920s: Matching of society needs to education and connecting outcomes and instruction. Individualized Instruction (II) plans were developed that allowed learners to progress at their own pace with minimum teacher direction. Contract learning and mastery learning emerged, and the roots of job analysis and task analysis.
1930s: Even Though the great depression affected education in terms of funding and other respects, the 8 year study plan (Tyler) was a major milestone in specifying general objectives for education and behavioral objectives were being shaped. Also formative evaluation was recognized.
1940s: With WWII and the military, mediated strategies such as the use of films for instruction and AV technology was dominant and the term for instructional technologist was coined by Finn. The idea of an instructional development team was also initiated.
1950s: With the baby boom after WWII, the Trumpet Plan that recognized small group, large group independent study instruction was a milestone and Sputnik which initiated federal funds to education was another milestone. The period also marked the birth of Programmed Instruction (PI) from behaviorism. Bloom’s mastery learning theory and task analysis was first used by the Air Force personnel.
1960s: Cognitive psychology was dominant in this decade (Gagne, Glaser), and the systems approach to designing instruction was introduced (Finn). A shift from norm-referenced testing to criterion-based testing was noted. The focus was on the development of instructional materials. The first types of teaching machines were developed, while instructional film became more creative and broadened its reach to children in schools. Programmed text and instructional films were some learning technologies used in the
1960s.The advent of large scale television availability brought on a new learning delivery method. The expenses were high and the delivery of the information challenging. The use of videos emerged and were used in corporate training and school classrooms for example educational shows such as Sesame Street and broadcasting university lectures.
1970s: Cognitive approach was still dominant. The work of Ausubel, Bruner, Merrill, Gagne and others on instructional strategies dominated this decade. The birth of AECT and the proliferation of models of instructional design was noted as well as the development of needs assessment procedures by Kauffman and others.
1980s: Performance technology (Gilbert) and the focus on needs assessement (identifying the gaps between actuals and optimals) (Rossett) and whether the discrepancy was due to lack of incentive, lack of knowledge or skills, or lack of environmental support. Microcomputer instruction (CBI/CBT) flourished in this decade with the emphasis on design for interactivity and learner control.
1990s: Focus on designing learning environments based on a constructivist approach to learning and multimedia development. Hypertext and hypermedia influence the field and cross-cultural issues are bridged using the Internet. In the 1990s, interactive learning via computer-based training (CBT), use of touch screens and interactive videodisks increased with the availability of home computers and more reliance on technology in the workplace. The technology has since been advancing very fast, leading to concerns of digital and knowledge divides, incompatibilities between hardware and software, slow system performance, and memory and disk space issue, In the 1990s and not enough memory space. This was a technological learning curve for both the learning industry who made the products and the learners who used them.
2000s: In the new millennium, Internet technologies are more and more integrated with personal, academic, and professional lives. Learners, educators, and instructional designers have a variety of tools and resources to chose from in the courses, seminars, and training, for example using e-learning tools, Web 2.0 tools, web conferencing, etc.
Understanding the history of e-learning and how it has evolved helps to make connection about possible future directions and options for keeping up with current research and technological innovations. Also remember that history of e-learning is not separate from the history of instructional design.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF E-LEARNING
Consideration with another instructional education e-Learning has many profits,these are:
- E-learning can make sort in time of study and make the cost of study cheaper.
- Make Interaction between student and teacher easier.
- The students able to share informations to each other.
- The attendance of teacher is not absolute to be needed.
- Teacher able
- to make the materials up-to-date appropriate of technology increasing.
- To upgrade their knowledge
- To control the students
Beside that, E-learning also has many lost out, these are:
- Without teacher attendance make the control of students less.
- Without teacher attendance, students demand to stand alone and responsible to their selvis to understanding the materials and it so complicated for student elementary school, junior and senior high school.
- For certain school , e-learning need expensive invastation to build it.
- The increasing of technology in our country is not spread yet, and it makes many school in our country is not prepare yet for e-learning.
- And in our country the technical of e-learning is not enough yet.
From the explanation above we can get the conclusions that:
1. E-learning has given a new contibution in education, so that hopefully the ability of learner in understanding of lessons which is given can be increase.
2. E-learning has given a freedom to learner and instructure to keep doing learning activity without measured up by space, time, administrative and politics.
3. And in our country the technical of e-learning is not enough yet.